The materials to use for road base are graded by the engineers depending on the quality of materials, usage area and budget. The materials used for roads have to have the following qualities: drought resistance, strength when dry or wet, easy compaction, little change in volume with moisture, and low cost.
The 10 materials that are mostly used are as follows:
1) Crushed Stone
Crushed stone is probably the most commonly used material for road base. It’s especially important to avoid materials that are of low quality because of their tendency to break apart, which results in gravel or sand becoming part of the material. For this reason, crushed stone is one of the best materials to use for road base. Not only does it create very little dust when crushed, but it also packs down well while still retaining some level of softness.
Gravel is another material that can be used for road base materials. However, gravel should be avoided if the goal is to reduce noise and dust because it tends to produce more of both than other materials.
Like gravel, sand should be avoided if noise and dust reduction are key considerations. Additionally, sand can be difficult to compact and can easily wash away in rain or snow.
4) Recycled Asphalt Pavement
RAP is created when asphalt pavement is recycled. It can be used as a road base material, but it is important to make sure that the RAP is free of contaminants.
5) Recycled Concrete Pavement
RCP is created when concrete pavement is recycled. It can also be used as a road base material, and it should be applied in thin layers because it is denser than materials such as RAP.
6) Fly Ash and Slag
Fly ash and slag are materials that can be used as a road base material. They work best when they are dry, and they should not be used with materials such as soil or clay. Additionally, these materials can create a great deal of dust.
Clay is often used in areas where there is a high water table because it does not absorb water well. It can be used as a road base material, but it is important to make sure that it is properly compacted.
Soil is often used as a road base material, but it must be properly compacted in order to be effective.
Riprap is a material that is made up of large rocks. It can be used as a road base material, but it should be applied in thin layers.
Geotextile is a material that is used to stabilize soil. It can be used as a road base material, but it should be applied in thin layers.
When selecting a material for a road base, it is important to consider the waste management department. Some materials create more waste than others. For example, crushed stone creates very little dust when crushed and it packs down well while still retaining some level of softness. On the other hand, materials such as gravel and sand can produce more noise and dust than other materials. It is also important to consider the density of the material. Materials such as Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Recycled Concrete Pavement are denser than materials such as fly ash and slag, which can result in materials such as soil and clay becoming part of the road base materials.
Consider contacting a waste management company to learn about the different materials that are available for road base and the amount of waste that each material produces. Doing so will help you make an informed decision about which materials to use for your project.