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RON HOWARD PRESENTS IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON A Film by David SingtonÂ to be released September 7, 2007
NEW YORK, NY (RUSHPRNEWS) August 14, 2007 – Between 1968 and 1972, nine American spacecraft voyaged to the Moon, and 12 men walked upon its surface. They remain the only human beings to have stood on another world. â€œIn the Shadow of the Moonâ€ brings together for the first, and possibly the last, time surviving crew members from every single Apollo mission that flew to the Moon, and allows them to tell their story in their own words.Â Â
IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOONFILMMAKERS
ProducerAssociate ProducerCo-Producer/ Assistant DirectorExecutive Producers for Film 4
Executive Producers for Discovery Films
Executive Producers for Discovery ChannelÂ
Â David SingtonSimon AndreaeJohn BattsekJulie GoldmanDuncan CoppSarah KinsellaChristopher RileyLouisa BolchHamish MykuraDavid McNabBilly CampbellAndrea MeditchJane RootJeff HaslerClive NorthDavid FairheadPhilip SheppardÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Buzz Aldrin, Ph.D. (Colonel, USAF, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 11 Lunar Module PilotÂ
Alan Bean (Captain, USN, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 12 Lunar Module Pilot
Gene Cernan (Captain, USN, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 10 Lunar Module PilotApollo 17 Commander
Mike Collins (BGEN, USAF, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot
Charlie Duke (Brigadier General, USAF, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 16 Lunar Module Pilot
Â Jim Lovell (Captain, USN, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 8 Command Module PilotApollo 13 CommanderÂ Â
Edgar Mitchell(Captain, USN, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 14 Lunar Module PilotÂ
Harrison Schmitt (Ph.D.)NASA Astronaut (former) Apollo 17 Lunar Module PilotÂ
Dave Scott (Colonel, USAF, Ret.)NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 9 Command Module PilotApollo 15 CommanderÂ
John YoungNASA Astronaut (Former)Apollo 10 Command Module PilotApollo 16 Commander
IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON ABOUT THE FILM
Between 1968 and 1972, nine American spacecraft voyaged to the Moon, and 12 men walked upon its surface. They remain the only human beings to have stood on another world. â€œIn the Shadow of the Moonâ€ brings together for the first, and possibly the last, time surviving crew members from every single Apollo mission that flew to the Moon, and allows them to tell their story in their own words.Â Â
This riveting first-hand testimony is interwoven with visually stunning archival material which has been re-mastered from the original NASA film footage â€“ much of it never used before. The result is an intimate epic that vividly communicates the daring, the danger, the pride, and the promise of this extraordinary era in history when the whole world literally looked up at
America.Â The participating astronauts include Jim Lovell (Apollo 8 and 13), Dave Scott (Apollo 9 and 15), John Young (Apollo 10 and 16), Gene Cernan (Apollo 10 and 17), Mike Collins (Apollo 11), Buzz Aldrin (Apollo 11), Alan Bean (Apollo 12), Edgar Mitchell (Apollo 14), Charlie Duke (Apollo 16) and Harrison Schmitt (Apollo 17). Beautifully shot by Clive North in High Definition video, the astronauts talk directly to camera. They emerge as surprisingly eloquent, witty, emotional and very human.Â Â
The producers Duncan Copp and Chris Riley spent many weeks in the NASA film library examining cans of film some of which had not been opened for over 30 years. This search uncovered many gems, astonishing space shots which have been re-mastered from the original film rolls to reveal the Apollo program with a visual clarity and impact it has never had before. The mute 16mm rolls shot in Mission Control have been laboriously lip-synced with the 16-track audio recordings of the mission controllersâ€™ voice loop to re-unite the pictures and sound of many historic moments for the first time, lending a striking immediacy to many dramatic scenes.
Editor David Fairhead and director David Sington have woven this material together with a beautiful orchestral score from composer Philip Sheppard to create a moving, nostalgic and inspiring cinematic experience.
IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOONABOUT THE PRODUCTIONÂ
A rousing celebration of human endeavor, IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON is the ultimate adventure film.Â A definitive depiction of
Americaâ€™s exploration of space, it chronicles the history of the Apollo program, presenting a richly detailed and vivid re-creation of manâ€™s first-ever lunar landing.Â Gathering for the first â€“ and possibly last â€“ time the surviving crew members of every manned Moon mission, the film allows these heroes to tell their story in their own words, and thrillingly illustrates their first-hand testimony with a treasure trove of footage, much of which has never before been seen in a feature film.Â The result is an intimate epic that distills all the danger, daring, promise and pride of an extraordinary era when the whole world literally looked up to America.Â
Between 1968 and 1972, nine American spacecraft voyaged to the Moon, but the race to get there began nearly a decade earlier, when NASA selected its first group of astronauts in 1959. In 1961, when the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth and became the first man in space, the Cold War heated up.Â One month later, Alan Shepard took a sub-orbital flight that lasted a mere 15 minutes, but that gave the
United States its â€œinâ€ in outer space.Â A few weeks after that, President John F. Kennedy made the goal official: in a speech delivered to Congress on May 25, 1961, he challenged the nation to put a man on the Moon and bring him safely back to Earth before the decadeâ€™s end. Despite Kennedyâ€™s assassination in November of 1963, (or perhaps because of it,) the countryâ€™s efforts to beat Russia to the Moon proceeded unabated, and the elite astronauts who would spearhead the quest were carefully selected over the course of the ensuing five years.Â
The nascent Apollo Program nearly ended in January of 1967, when Apollo 1 exploded on the launch pad during a simulated countdown.Â Though three astronauts died, their heroism in the face of untold and imponderable obstacles inspired and united America, whereas the war in
Vietnam â€“ another expensive military/industrial undertaking that martyred many young men â€“divided and demoralized the nation.Â With the countryâ€™s full backing, NASA launched a number of un-manned Apollo rockets in 1967 and 1968, and in December of â€˜68, a manned mission left Earthâ€™s orbit for the first time.Â Â Though it circled the Moon without landing, Kennedyâ€™s goal finally seemed attainable.Â Two more successful lunar orbital missions â€“ Apollo 9 and 10 â€“ brought man to within ten miles of the Moonâ€™s surface, and Apollo11, which was launched on July 16, 1969, was designated as the first that would try to land.Â Neil Armstrong was Mission Commander, Mike Collins was Command Module Pilot, and Buzz Aldrin was Lunar Module Pilot.Â On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 touched down on the Moonâ€™sSea ofTranquility and, the following day, Armstrong and Aldrin planted the American flag on the Moonâ€™s surface.Â All three men returned safely to Earth on July 24th.Â All told, a dozen Americans have walked on the Moon, with a handful more joining them as command module pilots.Â Â Six of this rare breed (three of them Moon-walkers) have already died, and the majority of the surviving Apollo astronauts are well into their seventies. As David Sington, director of IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON, notes, â€œWhat these astronauts have in common is a unique experience â€“ they are the only people in the entire history of humankind to have actually left planet Earth and looked back on our world from an alien vantage point.Â They have a perspective on our place in the universe that none of us can fully share.â€Â With this in mind, Sington and his colleagues set out to preserve and document what these men accomplished in a feature film that would provide audiences with an unprecedented opportunity to share the astronautâ€™s privileged perspective, and to glimpse our world from their unique point of view.Â Â
Sington recalls that in 2004, Dave Scott, commander of Apollo 15, was working in
London as a consultant for a BBC drama and, through that project, met producer Duncan Copp. â€œDave suggested to Duncan that now would be a good time to arrange a reunion of those who walked on the Moon,â€ Sington says.Â â€œThere had been 12, and Pete Conrad, Jim Irwin, and Alan Shepard had died, so I think Dave felt that it was time.Â The idea transformed into a â€˜reunion on filmâ€™, so to speak.Â When Duncan approached me about directing the project, I had a hunch that, as men in their seventies, the astronauts would be more reflective about their experiences than they had been at the time, and that there would be fascinating interviews to be captured on film!â€ Gaining access to these men was pivotal, and proved to be no small feat. As Sington notes, â€œbroadly speaking, the astronauts fall into two categories; those who give a lot of interviews and frequently talk publicly about their experiences (such as Buzz Aldrin,) and those who very rarely make any public appearance (such as Mike Collins).Â They pose different challenges to an interviewer,â€ he adds.Â â€œObviously, the difficult thing is to get someone like Mike Collins to agree to an interview at all, whereas with someone like Buzz, the challenge is to make the experience seem fresh â€“ particularly to the interviewee himself.Â If you can do that, then hopefully it will seem fresh to the audience as well.â€Â Supporting a project that was initially his idea, Dave Scott provided enormous assistance in marshalling his colleagues.Â â€œDave talked personally to several of the astronauts and wrote to others on our behalf,â€ Sington says.Â â€œWithout Daveâ€™s help, we would never have been able to recruit the unprecedented roster of contributors to the film.Â We have at least one crew member from every mission that flew to the Moon from Apollo 8 to Apollo 17.â€ Even Scott could not help the filmmakers get an interview with Neil Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11, though that voyage is the centerpiece of the film.Â Armstrong bears the symbolic weight of being the first man to set foot on the Moon and is, as a result, notoriously private.Â â€œWe always knew it would be very difficult to get Neil Armstrong to agree to an interview,â€ admits Sington.Â â€œWe were in email correspondence with him throughout the project, and he has always been very supportive, but he never agreed to an interview.Â He didnâ€™t exactly turn us down, he just never said â€˜yes!â€™â€Â Ironically, Armstrongâ€™s personality â€“ his â€œpresenceâ€ â€“ is defined by his absence, and the filmmakers were able to build his character with archival materials (e.g., an interview he did the day before the Apollo 11 launch,) and through the testimony of his comrades. â€œNeil Armstrong is at the heart of this film,â€ Sington notes, â€œand we get an interesting portrait of him from the other astronauts, but he inevitably remains slightly anonymous, a sort of astronaut Everyman.â€Â Â Â
â€œCuriously,â€ he continues, â€œas the film came together in the edit, I began to admire Armstrongâ€™s reticence, and to think that he made a very smart decision for us.â€Â Sington adds, â€œArmstrong said that any of the astronauts might have been the first on the Moon and, since it just happened to him, his personal reactions and experiences are beside the point. And, you know what? I agree with him!â€Â He came to realize that, â€œthe importance of that â€˜small stepâ€™ is not that Neil Armstrong stood on the Moon, or that an American stood on the Moon.Â The real significance is that a member of the human race left our home planet and stepped onto another world. Neil Armstrong was the â€˜First Man on the Moon,â€™ but perhaps to ask for an interview with the â€˜First Manâ€™ is like trying to interview the Unknown Soldier. Paradoxically, by remaining slightly anonymous, Neil Armstrong helps us to appreciate the true meaning of what he did on July 20, 1969.â€
Having secured the cooperation of Armstrongâ€™s nine colleagues, Sington and his team took great pains to use them in the most effective way possible. â€The idea of the film,â€ he says, â€œwas to give the astronauts a platform to talk directly to the audience about the human experience of leaving earth and voyaging to an alien world. So, I wanted there to be as little mediation between astronaut and theater-goer as possible.Â Hence, there is no narration. The film is carried entirely by archive and the astronautâ€™s own words.â€Â This unmediated approach is carried over to the filmâ€™s shooting style. Sington notes: â€œThe astronauts are looking directly at the camera lens and therefore directly at the audience. Quite deliberately, they â€˜look us in the eyeâ€™ and, of course, we are able to look them in the eye.Â We took a couple of days to experiment with different set-ups, lighting arrangements, and backdrops to get the right look.â€Â Once this was sorted out, Sington and his crew practiced setting up and breaking down several times so that they could go into the astronautsâ€™ homes and prepare to shoot very quickly.Â â€œOne thing about astronauts,â€ he notes, â€œis that they are very punctual. I was determined never to keep them waiting while we fiddled with the lights!â€Â Even though much of the filmâ€™s spectacle and visual beauty comes from the various archival materials, these men are what give it its true dimension. â€œThese are still very handsome men,â€ Sington says, â€œand our D.P., Clive North, brought out this fantastic chiseled quality to their faces.Â Several people who have seen the film have said that, despite all the stunning archive in the movie, the most arresting images are the astronautsâ€™ faces.Â We knew we were breaking some rules with the choice of big, big close-ups, which you donâ€™t often see in the cinema, but I think it really works, thanks to Cliveâ€™s skill with light and lens. The modeling is beautiful!â€ In the editing, Sington frequently lingers on these faces for several moments either before or after the men speak.Â Most films are cut aggressively, eliminating anything that isnâ€™t informational or anecdotal, but by capturing these men in repose, Sington allows the viewer to watch them remember, and think, and feel.Â Inevitably, this makes the audience remember, and think, and feel.Â
Incorporating all nine of the Apollo astronauts into the film, even though Apollo 11 is the mission driving the narrative, was essential to the filmmakers.Â â€œThe film is the story â€“ seen through the eyes of the astronauts â€“ of how
America fulfilled the challenge laid down by Kennedy,â€ observes Sington.Â â€œObviously, that puts Apollo 11 center stage.Â We leave the Earth and return to it with Apollo 11. But, the heart of the film is the completely unique experience of journeying to another world. What did that feel like? What did it mean to the men who did it at the time? What does it feel like now, looking back?â€Â So, Sington went beyond the scope of the one mission, including all the others.Â â€œAt key moments,â€ he notes, â€œwe pause the story of Apollo 11 to talk to the other astronauts about certain extraordinary experiences they all shared â€“riding the Saturn V, looking back at receding Earth, approaching the alien world of the Moon, exploring the lunar surface, returning to Earth.Â And, at the end we hear from all of them about how the entire experience changed them and their perspective on the human condition.â€Â Thus, the film developed a â€œchapterâ€ structure and assumed a â€œchoralâ€ style.Â The one exception within this narrative approach is the story of the famously aborted mission, Apollo 13, which became a chapter in its own right.Â Because it was unlike any of the other missions, it necessitated a sort of detour for Sington.Â He observes that â€œyou can really think of this sequence as a five-minute, documentary version of Ron Howardâ€™s marvelous film, â€˜Apollo 13.â€™Â I think audiences will retroactively be impressed to see just how closely Ron stuck to the truth, and how accurately he portrayed events both in space and in Mission Control.â€Â Sington reminds us that Dave Scott also served as technical advisor on Howardâ€™s film.Â
As well-researched as â€œApollo 13â€ is, no dramatization, and no number of special effects, can beat the authenticity of the actual NASA footage that Sington was able to access for IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON, some of it never before seen in a motion picture.Â Sington advises that, at the time of the Apollo missions, NASA made 30-minute films about each mission that were made available to the media.Â â€œThese tapes,â€ he observes, â€œcopied and re-copied, have formed the archive basis for most of the documentaries subsequently made.Â Weâ€™ve grown so used to seeing those few shots, (getting fuzzier and fuzzier over time), that many people think thatâ€™s all there is.Â But, beyond this selection, there is a great mass of unseen material that, for obvious reasons of preservation, has been difficult for filmmakers to access.â€Â The footage shot in space, some of it engineering footage, and some of it shot by the astronauts themselves, has spent most of the last forty years in cold storage, literally under liquid nitrogen.Â The material shot on the ground, of training, construction, and in Mission Control during the actual missions, is mainly stored in Houston, in the
Johnson Space Center. As they embarked upon IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON, the filmmakers learned that NASA was in the process of taking the space footage out of cold storage and transferring it to high definition video.Â â€œWe knew that all that material would be available to us in all its re-mastered glory, and NASA was kind enough to provide us with digital clones.Â I think weâ€™re probably the first filmmakers to exploit this fantastic resource.â€Â Producer Duncan Copp and co-producer Chris Riley were responsible for sourcing all of the archival material, and spent weeks at NASA as well as at Dryden and Edwards Air Force Bases, among other locations.Â â€œThe archive is well catalogued,â€ says Sington, â€œbut, in the end, the only way to know whatâ€™s on a roll of film is to look at it, and Duncan and Chris opened literally hundreds of film cans and watched miles and miles of film, some of which had clearly not been looked at or used since it was shot in the â€˜60s.Â They found some footage that we think has genuinely never been seen before, including some wonderful shots in Mission Control during the Apollo 11 mission.Â It was nearly all mute, but we were able to visually lip-sync this footage with the audio recording of the flight controllerâ€™s loop, which had been restored.Â It was difficult â€“ a sort of audio-visual Rubikâ€™s Cube â€“ but it enabled us to re-create the atmosphere in Mission Control at that historic moment in a way Iâ€™ve never seen before.Â I think thatâ€™s why audiences say that, even though they know whatâ€™s going to happen, the landing of Apollo 11 in our film is still really tense and exciting.â€Â Â Â Some of the most remarkable shots of space that appear in IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON are also remarkable for how they were achieved â€“ and retrieved â€“ by NASA.Â Sington tell us, â€œthe film has some stunning shots of the spacecraft separating and docking.Â This material was shot so that the engineers could investigate the cause of any problems â€“ in effect a sort of visual â€˜black boxâ€™ recording.Â There were cameras built into the various stages of the Saturn V rocket that would automatically film key moments, usually at high frame rates, on 16 mm. film.Â The cameras would then eject â€“ you can actually see this happening in one particularly spectacular shot of the final-stage firing â€“ and then re-enter the atmosphere where they would be caught mid-air by high-flying aircraft equipped with nets!â€Â Because these images were taken for forensic purposes, in the event of an accident, and since no accident occurred, the film languished, as raw, undeveloped stock for years.Â These little-seen shots, indisputably among the most expensive in the history of cinema, appear to breathtaking effect in IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON.Â To underscore their authenticity, as well as their precious value, Sington utilizes every available second.Â â€œWe wanted the audience to luxuriate in this amazing footage, and we play them in their entirety, flash frame to flash frame.â€Â
To heighten the filmâ€™s sense of spectacle and wonder, the filmmakers commissioned a full symphonic score from composer Philip Sheppard that was performed by a 60-piece orchestra and a choir.Â â€œThe music makes the movie,â€ says Sington, â€œand makes it almost operatic, going from aria to aria.Â Philip came on to the project right at the start of the edit, and the approach was to make the score feel very American.Â Our point of reference was the music of Aaron Copland, and Philip wrote it in that almost folk idiom.Â So, when he was composing for the sequence of astronauts exploring the Moon, I asked him to imagine wagon trains crossing the
Missouri â€“Americans pioneering from one century to another!Â The music for the launch of Apollo 11 is written as if the scene were an Amish barn-raising â€“ I wanted that sense of open-hearted optimism and joy.Â I also love the way the score has a nostalgic, bittersweet quality.â€Â To emphasize just how integral the music is, Sington notes that Sheppard and film editor David Fairhead collaborated unusually closely: â€œWe were cutting to Philipâ€™s music as much as he was writing to the rhythms of Davidâ€™s cut sequences.â€Â
As American as IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON is in its sound, it is every bit as much so in its spirit, which is ironic considering that Sington and the entire creative team are British.Â â€œI think there is something quintessentially American about Apollo and I think as a Brit I can see that more clearly than someone born here who takes it all for granted,â€ he says.Â â€œWhile this film is about Apollo, its also about America; America at its best,
America as it should be, but sometimes isnâ€™t â€“ bold courageous, open, generous, optimistic, ingenious â€“ a country that thrives on challenge and believes there is no problem so difficult it cannot be overcome.Â In making this movie, I rediscovered the America of my dreams.â€ But the Apollo program represented more than one nation.Â In fact, it united all nations by proving what all of mankind could accomplish.Â Sington points out that as you watch his film, not a desktop computer is in sight.Â â€œThe whole Apollo program was designed with pencil and paper,â€ he reminds us.Â â€œThere is quite literally more computing power in a contemporary mobile phone than in all the Apollo spacecraft put together.Â It does seem now that Kennedyâ€™s challenge was impossible, but that doesnâ€™t seem to have stopped anyone from going for it.â€Â
â€œI think the Apollo Space Program stands as an enduring monument to the ability of the human race to do astonishing things,â€ Sington says by way of conclusion.Â â€œWe are a very quarrelsome and destructive species, and weâ€™re trashing our only home at an alarming rate just now.Â But, weâ€™re also capable of astounding things.Â All too often, what we see on our screens is humanity at its worst.Â I hope IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON allows us to spend an hour and a half communing with human beings at their inspiring best.â€Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
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TIMELINE OF EVENTS(Film interviewees in blue/bold)Â
October 17, 1963A third group of astronauts is selected by NASA.Â This group includes Buzz Aldrin, Alan Bean, Gene Cernan, Michael Collins and Dave Scott.
November 22, 1963President Kennedy assassinated.Â
June 28, 1965Fourth group of astronauts selected by NASA.Â Harrison Schmitt was a member of this group.
April 4, 1966Fifth group of astronauts selected by NASA.Â This group included Charlie Duke and Edgar Mitchell.Â
January 27, 1967Apollo 1 accident.Â Crew members Roger Chaffee, Ed White and Gus Grissom are killed by a fire in their spacecraft during a simulated countdown on the launch pad.
November 1967 â€“ October 1968NASA launches a number of Apollo Saturn V rockets (Apolloâ€™s 4, 5 and 6), culminating with the launch of Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, in October 1968.Â
December 21, 1968Launch of Apollo 8Humans leave Earth orbit for the first time. The crew become the first people to see the whole circle of the Earth. The mission orbits, but does not land on, the Moon. Their Christmas message from the Moon includes a reading from the Book of Genesis, and is heard across the world.- Commander: Frank BormanÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â – Command Module Pilot: Jim Lovell- Lunar Module Pilot: Bill Anders- Returned to Earth: December 27, 1968
March 3, 1969Launch of Apollo 9Apollo 9 performs the first manned shake-down test of all the Apollo lunar hardware in Earth orbit, including the first manned flight of the lunar module. The crew practise docking manoeuvres between the command module and the lunar module.- Commander: James McDivitt- Command Module Pilot: Dave Scott- Lunar Module Pilot: Russell SchweickartÂ
May 18, 1969Launch of Apollo 10Apollo 10 repeats the flight of Apollo 9, but this time in lunar orbit. The lunar module descends to within 10 miles of the lunar surface. The success of Apollo 10 clears the way for the first attempt at a lunar landing.- Commander: Tom Stafford- Command Module Pilot: John Young- Lunar Module Pilot: Gene Cernan- Returned to Earth: May 26, 1969
July 16, 1969Launch of Apollo 11The first mission to land on the Moon. On July 21, 1969, Neil Armstrong becomes the first human to walk on another world. Armstrong and Aldrin spend a little over two and a half hours on the surface and collected approximately 22 kg of lunar samples.- Commander: Neil Armstrong- Command Module Pilot: Mike Collins- Lunar Module Pilot: Buzz AldrinÂ
– Landed on Moon: July 20, 1969- Landing Site:
Sea ofTranquility- First Step on Moon: July 21, 1969 – Returned to Earth: July 24, 1969 November 14, 1969Launch of Apollo 12Apollo 12 executes the first precision lunar landing. The astronauts land the lunar module within walking distance of the Surveyor III spacecraft which set down on the Moon in April 1967. – Commander: Pete Conrad (deceased)- Command Module Pilot: Dick Gordon- Lunar Module Pilot: Alan BeanÂ
– Landed on Moon: November 19, 1969- Landing Site:
Ocean ofStorms- Returned to Earth: November 24, 1969Â
April 11, 1970Launch of Apollo 13An electrical fault in one of the oxygen tanks causes an explosion which cripples the command module during the outward journey to the Moon. The crew use the lunar module as a â€˜lifeboatâ€™ to get them home to Earth. – Commander: Jim Lovell- Command Module Pilot: Jack Swigert (deceased)- Lunar Module Pilot: Fred HaiseÂ Â
– Malfunction forced cancellation of lunar landing: April 13, 1970- Returned to Earth: April 17, 1970
January 31, 1971Launch of Apollo 14The third successful lunar landing touches down in the Fra Mauro region of the Moon, originally designated for Apollo 13. – Commander: Alan Shepard (deceased)- Command Module Pilot: Stuart Roosa (deceased)- Lunar Module Pilot: Edgar MitchellÂ – Landed on Moon: February 5, 1971- Landing Site: Fra Mauro- Returned to Earth: February 9, 1971Â
July 26, 1971Launch of Apollo 15Apollo 15 touches down close to Hadley Rille at the foot of the spectacular
Apennine Mountain range. During the first of the â€˜extended stayâ€™ science missions, Scott and Irwin become the first astronauts to drive on the Moon using the lunar rover, clocking up a distance of almost 19 miles and returning almost 77 kg of lunar samples.- Commander: Dave Scott – Command Module Pilot: Alfred Worden- Lunar Module Pilot: Jim Irwin (deceased) – Landed on Moon: July 30, 1971- Landing Site: Hadley Rille- Returned to Earth: August 7, 1971Â
April 16, 1972Launch of Apollo 16John Young and Charlie Duke land their Lunar Module â€˜Orionâ€™ in the mountainous highland region of the Moon, the first to venture beyond the flat relatively smoother volcanic â€˜Mareâ€™ areas. The site is some 7,400ft higher than that of Apollo 11. – Commander: John Young- Command Module Pilot: Ken Mattingly- Lunar Module Pilot: Charlie Duke
– Landed on Moon: April 20, 1972- Landing Site: Descartes- Returned to Earth: April 27, 1972Â
December 7, 1972Launch of Apollo 17Gene Cernan becomes the last man to walk on the Moon after he and geologist-scientist Harrison Schmitt spend three days exploring the Taurus-Littrow valley, a valley deeper than the
Grand Canyon on Earth. – Commander: Gene Cernan- Command Module Pilot: Ron Evans (deceased) – Lunar Module Pilot: Harrison SchmittÂ – Landed on Moon: December 11, 1972 – Landing Site: Taurus-Littrow- Returned to Earth: December 19, 1972Â
Other useful sources:Apollo Lunar Surface Journal â€“ http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/alsj/NASA: The Apollo Program â€“ http://history.nasa.gov/apollo.htmlNASA: Apollo home page â€“ http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.htmlThe Apollo Missions â€“ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo.html
ABOUT THE ASTRONAUTS
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Buzz Aldrin, Ph.D. (Colonel, USAF, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 11 Lunar Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born January 20, 1930, in
Montclair, New Jersey. Two sons, one daughter. Married to the former Lois Driggs Cannon ofPhoenix. Their combined family is comprised of six grown children and one grandson.Â
EDUCATION: Graduated from
Montclair High School, Montclair, New Jersey; received a bachelor of science degree in 1951 from theUnited States Military Academy at West Point, New York, graduating third in his class; and a doctorate of science in Astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge. His thesis was “Guidance for Manned Orbital Rendezvous.” Aldrin has honorary degrees from six colleges and universities. SPECIAL HONORS: Aldrin has received numerous decorations and awards, including the Presidential Medal for Freedom in 1969, the Robert J. Collier Trophy, the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, and the Harmon International Trophy in 1967.Â
NASA EXPERIENCE: Aldrin was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963.Â On November 11, 1966, he and command pilot James Lovell were launched into space in the Gemini 12 spacecraft on a 4-day flight, which brought the Gemini program to a successful close. Aldrin established a new record for extravehicular activity (EVA), spending 5-1/2 hours outside the spacecraft.
He served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, July 16-24, 1969, the first manned lunar landing mission. Aldrin followed Neil Armstrong onto the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, completing a 2-hour and 15 minute lunar EVA.Â In July 1971, Aldrin resigned from NASA. Aldrin has logged 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which, 7 hours and 52 minutes were spent in EVA.Â
EXPERIENCE: Prior to joining NASA, Aldrin flew 66 combat missions in F-86’s while on duty in Korea. At Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, he served as an aerial gunnery instructor. Following his assignment as aide to the dean of faculty at the Air Force Academy, Aldrin flew F-100’s as a flight commander at
Bitburg, Germany. He went on to receive a doctorate at MIT, and was then assigned to the Gemini Target Office of the Air Force Space Systems Division, Los Angeles. In March 1972, Aldrin retired from Air Force active duty, after 21 years of service. As a USAF jet fighter pilot during the Korean War, he shot down two MIG 15 aircraft.Since retiring from NASA, the Air Force, and his position as commander of the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in 1972, he authored an autobiography, â€œReturn to Earth.â€ Aldrin has remained at the forefront of efforts to ensure a continued leading role for America in manned space exploration to advance his life-long commitment to venturing outward in space.Â
In addition, he lectures throughout the world on his unique perspective of
America’s future in space. He has just authored a book about the Apollo Program titled â€œMen from Earth.â€Â Dr. Aldrin is President of Starcraft Enterprise,Laguna Beach, California.Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
NAME: Alan Bean (Captain, USN, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 12 Lunar Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born in Wheeler,
Texas, on March 15, 1932. Married. Two grown children, a son and a daughter.Â
EDUCATION: Graduated from Paschal High School in Fort Worth, Texas; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the
University ofTexas in 1955; awarded an honorary doctorate of science fromTexas Wesleyan College in 1972; presented an honorary doctorate of engineering science degree from theUniversity ofAkron (Ohio) in 1974. ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society; member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots.Â SPECIAL HONORS: Helped establish 11 world records in space and astronautics; awarded two NASA distinguished Service Medals, the Navy Astronaut Wings and two Navy Distinguished Service Medals; recipient of the Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award for Scientific and Technical Progress, the University of Texas Distinguished Alumnus Award and Distinguished Engineering Graduate Award, the Godfrey L. Cabot Award, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Trustees Award, the Texas Press Associationâ€™s Man of the Year Award for 1969, the City of Chicago Gold Medal, the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1973, the Federation Aeronautique Internationaleâ€™s Yuri Gagarin Gold Medal for 1973 and the V.M. Komarov Diploma for 1973 (1974), the Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy for 1975 (1975), the AIAA Octave Chanute Award for 1975 (1975), the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1974 (1975).Â
EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean, a Navy ROTC Student at
Texas, was commissioned upon graduation in 1955. After completing flight training, he was assigned to a jet attack squadron inJacksonville, Florida. After a four-year tour of duty, he attended theNavy Test Pilot School, then flew as a test pilot on several types of naval aircraft.Â
NASA EXPERIENCE: Alan Bean was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963. He served as backup astronaut for the Gemini 10 and Apollo 9 missions.Â Captain Bean was lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, manâ€™s second lunar landing. In November 1969, Captain Bean and Captain Pete Conrad landed in the moonâ€™s
Ocean ofStorms â€“ after a flight of some 250,000 miles. They explored the lunar surface, deployed several lunar surface experiments, and installed the first nuclear power generator station on the moon to provide the power source. Captain Richard Gordon remained in lunar orbit photographing landing sites for future missions.Â
Captain Bean was spacecraft commander of Skylab Mission II (SL-3), July 29 to September 25, 1973. With him on the 59-day, 24,400,000 mile world record setting flight were scientist-astronaut Dr. Owen K. Garriott and Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Jack R. Lousma. Mission II accomplished 150% of its pre-mission forecast goals.Â On his next assignment, Captain Bean was backup spacecraft commander of the
United States flight crew for the joint American-Russian Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.Â Captain Bean has logged 1,671 hours and 45 minutes in space â€“ of which 10 hours and 26 minutes were spent in EVAs on the moon and in earth orbit. Captain Bean has flown 27 types of military aircraft as well as many civilian airplanes. He has logged more than 7,145 hours flying time â€“ including 4,890 hours in jet aircraft. Captain Bean retired from the Navy in October 1975 but continued as head of the Astronaut Candidate Operations and Training Group within the Astronaut Office in a civilian capacity.Â Bean resigned from NASA in June 1981 to devote his full time to painting. He said his decision was based on the fact that, in his 18 years as an astronaut, he was fortunate enough to visit worlds and see sights no artistâ€™s eye, past or present, has ever viewed firsthand and he hopes to express these experiences through the medium of art. He is pursuing this dream at his home and studio inHouston.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Gene Cernan (Captain, USN, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 10 Lunar Module PilotApollo 17 CommanderÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born in
Chicago, Illinois, on March 14, 1934. Married – Jan Nanna Cernan. They have three daughters, and one grandchild. His hobbies include love for horses, all competitive sports activities, including hunting, fishing and flying. EDUCATION: Graduated from Proviso Township High School in Maywood, Illinois; received a bachelor of science degree in Electrical Engineering from Purdue University in 1956 and a master of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California; recipient of an Honorary Doctorate of Law degree from Western State University College of Law in 1969, an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from Purdue University in 1970, Drexel University in 1977, and Gonzaga University & Comenius University of the Slovak Republic, Petroleum Economics and Management Seminar, Northwestern University, 1978.Â
ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow, American Astronautical Society; member, Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member, Tau Beta Pi (National Engineering Society), Sigma Xi (National Science Research Society), Phi Gamma Delta (National Social Fraternity), and the Explorer’s Club.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the JSC Superior Achievement Award, two Navy Distinguished Service Medals, the Navy Astronaut Wings, the Navy Distinguished Flying Cross, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special Trustees Award (1969), the Federation Aeronautique Internationale Gold Space Medal for 1972, the Cities of Houston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York Gold Medals, the VFW National Space Medal in 1973, Daughters of The American Revolution Medal of Honor, Induction into the U.S. Space Hall of Fame, the Challenger Center’s “Salute to the U.S. Space Program” Honor, Slovak World Recognition Award and Slovak Presidential Medal of Honor.Â
EXPERIENCE: Cernan, a retired United States Navy Captain, received his commission through the Navy ROTC Program at Purdue. He entered flight training upon graduation. He was assigned to Attack Squadrons 26 and 112 at the Miramar, California, Naval Air Station, and Subsequently attended the
Naval Postgraduate School. He has logged more than 5000 hours flying time with more than 4800 hours in jet aircraft and over 200 jet aircraft carrier landings. NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Cernan was one of fourteen astronauts selected by NASA in October 1963.Â He occupied the pilot seat alongside of command pilot Tom Stafford on the Gemini IX mission. During this 3-day flight which Began on June 3, 1966, the spacecraft achieved a circular orbit of 161 statute miles; the crew used three different techniques to effect rendezvous with the previously launched Augmented Target Docking Adapter; and Cernan, the second American to walk in space, logged two hours and ten minutes outside the spacecraft in extravehicular activities. The flight ended after 72 hours and 20 minutes with a perfect re-entry and recovery as Gemini IX landed within 1-1/2 miles of the prime recovery ship USS WASP and 3/8 of a mile from the predetermined target.Â Cernan subsequently served as backup pilot for Gemini 12 and as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 7.Â On his second space flight, he was lunar module pilot of Apollo 10, May 18-26, 1969, the first comprehensive lunar-orbital qualification and verification flight test of an Apollo lunar module. He was accompanied on the 248,000 nautical sojourn to the moon by Thomas P. Stafford (spacecraft commander) and John W. Young (commander module pilot). In accomplishing all of the assigned objectives of this mission, Apollo 10 confirmed the operations performance, stability, and reliability of the command/service module and lunar module configuration during trans-lunar coast, lunar orbit insertion, and lunar module separation and descent to within 8 nautical miles of the lunar surface. The latter maneuver involved employing all but the final minutes of the technique prescribed for use in an actual lunar landing, and allowed critical evaluations of the lunar module propulsions systems and rendezvous of the landing radar devices in subsequent rendezvous and re-docking maneuvers. In addition to demonstrating that man could navigate safely and accurately in the moon’s gravitational fields, Apollo 10 photographed and mapped tentative landing sites for future missions.Â
Cernan’s next assignment was backup spacecraft commander for Apollo 14.Â He made his third space flight as spacecraft commander of Apollo 17 â€“ the last scheduled manned mission to the moon for the
United States â€“ which commenced at 11:33 P.M. (CST), December 6, 1972, with the first manned nighttime launch, and concluded on December 19, 1972. With him on the voyage of the command module â€œAmericaâ€ and the lunar module â€œChallengerâ€ were Ronald Evans (command module pilot) and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt (lunar module pilot). In maneuvering “Challenger” to a landing at Taurus-Littrow, located on the southeast edge of Mare Serenitatis, Cernan and Schmitt activated a base of operations from which they completed three highly successful excursions to the nearby craters and theTaurus mountains, making the Moon their home for over three days. This last mission to the moon established several new records for manned space flight that include: longest manned lunar landing flight (301 hours 51 minutes); longest lunar surface extravehicular activities (22 hours 6 minutes); largest lunar sample return (an estimated 115 kg (249 lbs.); and longest time in lunar orbit (147 hours 48 minutes). While Cernan and Schmitt conducted activities on the lunar surface, Evans remained in lunar orbit aboard the “America” completing assigned work tasks requiring geological observations, handheld photography of specific targets, and the control of cameras and other highly sophisticated scientific equipment carried in the command module SIM-bay. Evans also completed a 1-hour, 6-minute extravehicular activity on the transearth coast phase of the return flight, successfully retrieving three camera cassettes and completing a personal inspection of the equipment bay area. Apollo 17 ended with a splashdown in thePacific Ocean approximately 0.4 miles from the target point and 4.3 miles form the prime recovery ship USS TICONDEROGA.Â
Captain Cernan has logged 566 hours and 15 minutes in space-of which more than 73 hours were spent on the surface of the moon.Â In September, 1973, Cernan assumed additional duties as Special Assistant to the Program Manager of the Apollo spacecraft Program at the
Johnson Space Center. In this capacity, he assisted in the planning, development, and evaluation of the joint United States/Soviet Union Apollo-Soyuz mission, and he acted for the program manager as the senior United States negotiator in direct discussions with theUSSR on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. On July 1, 1976, Captain Cernan retired after over 20 years with the U.S. Navy. He concurrently terminated his formal association with NASA.Â Captain Cernan was the second American to have walked in space having spanned the circumference of the world twice in a little more than 2-1/2 hours. He was one of the two men to have flown to the moon on two occasions, and as commander of the last mission to the moon, Apollo 17, had the privilege and distinction of being the last man to have left his footprints on the surface of the moon.Â
BUSINESS: Cernan joined Coral Petroleum, Inc., of
Houston, Texas, as Executive Vice President-International. His responsibilities were to enhance Coral’s energy related programs on a worldwide basisÂ
In September 1981, Captain Cernan started his own company, The Cernan Corporation, to pursue management and consultant interests in the energy, aerospace, and other related industries. Additionally he has been actively involved as a co-anchorman on ABC-TV’s presentations of the flight of the shuttle.Â In a recent acquisition, Captain Cernan became Chairman of the Board of Johnson Engineering Corporation. Johnson Engineering currently provides the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with Flight Crew Systems Development with personnel located both on and off site at
Johnson Space Center. Over the last seventeen years, Johnson Engineering has supported NASA in the design of crew stations for Space Shuttle, Spacelab, Space Station, Lunar Base and Mars Outpost. The company is directly involved with the operation of the 1-G trainers in Building 9A and B, as well as the Weightless Environment Training Facility in Building 29.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Mike Collins (BGEN, USAF, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 11 Command Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born in
Rome, Italy, on October 31, 1930. Married to the former Patricia M. Finnegan ofBoston, Massachusetts. Three grown children (two daughters, one son). His hobbies include fishing and handball.EDUCATION: Graduated fromSaint Albans School in Washington, D.C.; received a Bachelor of Science degree from theUnited States Military Academy atWest Point, New York, in 1952. ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.Â
SPECIAL HONORS: Presented the Presidential Medal for Freedom in 1969 and recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, and the Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross.
PUBLICATIONS: â€œCarrying the Fireâ€ â€“ Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1974.Â
EXPERIENCE: Collins chose an Air Force career following graduation from
West Point. He served as an experimental flight test officer at theAir Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base,California, and, in that capacity, tested performance and stability and control characteristics of Air Force aircraft â€“ primarily jet fighters.Â He has logged approximately 5,000 hours flying time.Â
NASA EXPERIENCE: Collins was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963. He served as backup pilot for the Gemini VII mission.Â As pilot on the 3-day Gemini X mission, launched July 18, 1966, Collins shared with command pilot John Young in the accomplishments of that record-setting flight. These accomplishments included a successful rendezvous and docking with a separately launched Agena target vehicle and, using the power of the Agena, maneuvering the Gemini spacecraft into another orbit for a rendezvous with a second, passive Agena. Collins’ skillful performance in completing two periods of extravehicular activity included the recovery of a micrometeorite detection experiment from the passive Agena. Gemini X attained an apogee of approximately 475 statute miles and traveled a distance of 1,275,091 statute miles â€“ after which splashdown occurred in the West Atlantic, 529 miles east of
Cape Kennedy. The spacecraft landed 2.6 miles from the USS GUADALCANAL and became the second spacecraft in the Gemini program to land within eye and camera range of the prime recovery ship.Â
Collins served as command module pilot on Apollo 11, July 16-24, 1969 â€“ the first lunar landing mission. He remained aboard the command module,
Columbia, on station in lunar orbit while Neil Armstrong, spacecraft commander, and Edwin Aldrin, lunar module pilot, descended to the lunar surface in their lunar module Eagle. Collins performed the final re-docking maneuvers following a successful lunar orbit rendezvous which was initiated by Armstrong and Aldrin from within the Eagle after their ascent from the lunar surface. Among the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 mission were collection of lunar surface samples for return to earth, deployment of lunar surface experiments, and an extensive evaluation of the life supporting extravehicular mobility unit worn by astronauts.Â
Collins completed two space flights, logging 266 hours in space â€“ of which 1 hour and 27 minutes was spent in EVA.Â He left NASA in January 1970, and is Director of the
National Air & Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, inWashington, D.C.Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Charlie Duke (Brigadier General, USAF, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 16 Lunar Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born in
Charlotte, North Carolina, on October 3, 1935. Married to the former Dorothy Meade Clairborne ofAtlanta, Georgia. They have two grown sons. Recreational interests include hunting, fishing, reading, and playing golf. EDUCATION: Attended Lancaster High School in Lancaster, South Carolina, and was graduated valedictorian from the Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida; received a bachelor of science degree in Naval Sciences from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1957 and a master of science degree in Aeronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964; presented an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the University of South Carolina in 1973, and an honorary doctorate of Humanities from Francis Marion College in 1990.Â
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the Air Force Association, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Reserve Officer Association, Full Gospel Businessmen’s Fellowship, Christian Businessmen’s Committee; National Space Society.
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the JSC Certificate of Commendation (1970), the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster and AF Legion of Merit, and Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, the SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award of 1972, the AAS Flight Achievement Award for 1972, the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award for 1973, and the Federation Aeronautique Internationale V.M. Komarov Diploma in 1973; named South Carolina Man of the Year in 1973 and inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame in 1973; and presented the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1975.Â
EXPERIENCE: When notified of his selection as an astronaut, Duke was at the
Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School as an instructor teaching control systems and flying in the F-101, F-104, and T-33 aircraft. He graduated from theAerospace Research Pilot School in September 1965 and stayed on there as an instructor.Â
He is a retired Air Force Reserve Brigadier General and was commissioned in 1957 upon graduation from the
Naval Academy. Upon entering the Air Force, he went to Spence Air Base, Georgia, for primary flight training and then to Webb Air Force Base,Texas, for basic flying training, where in 1958 he became a distinguished graduate. He was again a distinguished graduate at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, where he completed advanced training in F-86L aircraft. Upon completion of this training, he served three years as a fighter interceptor pilot with the 526th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base, Germanypilot with the 526th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at Ramstein Air Base,Germany. He has logged 4,147 hours flying time, which includes 3,632 hours in jet aircraft.Â Duke was one of the 19 astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966. He served as member of the astronaut support crew for the Apollo 10 flight. He was CAPCOM for Apollo 11, the first landing on the Moon and he served as backup lunar module pilot on Apollo 13.Â Duke served as lunar module pilot of Apollo 16, April 16-27, 1972. He was accompanied on the fifth manned lunar landing mission by John W. Young (spacecraft commander) and Thomas K. Mattingly II (command module pilot). Apollo 16 was the first scientific expedition to inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface features in the Descartes region of the rugged lunar highlands. Duke and Young commenced their record setting lunar surface stay of 71 hours and 14 minutes by maneuvering the lunar module “Orion” to a landing on the rough Cayley Plains. In three subsequent excursions onto the lunar surface, they each logged 20 hours and 15 minutes in extravehicular activities involving the emplacement and activation of scientific equipment and experiments, the collection of nearly 213 pounds of rock and soil samples, and the evaluation and use of Rover-2 over the roughest and blockiest surface yet encountered on the moon.Â
Other Apollo 16 achievements included the largest payload placed in lunar orbit (76, 109 pounds); first cosmic ray detector deployed on lunar surface; first lunar observatory with the far UV camera; and longest in-flight EVA from a command module during transearth coast (1 hour and 13 minutes). The latter feat was accomplished by Mattingly when he ventured out to “
Casper’s” SIM-bay for the retrieval of vital film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras. Apollo 16 concluded with aPacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS TICONDEROGA. With the completion of his first space flight, Duke has logged 265 hours in space and over 21 hours of extra vehicular activity.Â Duke also served as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 17.Â In December 1975, Duke retired from the Astronaut program to enter private business. He is owner of Duke Investments, and is President of Charlie Duke Enterprises. He is an active speaker and Christian lay witness and President of Duke Ministry For Christ.Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Jim Lovell (Captain, USN, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 8 Command Module PilotApollo 13 CommanderÂ Â
PERSONAL DATA: Born in
Cleveland, Ohio, on March 25, 1928. Married to the former Marilyn Gerlach, ofMilwaukee, Wisconsin. They have four children. EDUCATION: University of Wisconsin; United States Naval Academy, bachelor of science, 1952; Test Pilot School, NATC, Patuxent River, Maryland, 1958; Aviation Safety School, University of Southern California, 1961; Advanced Management Program, Harvard Business School, 1971; honorary doctorates from Rockhurst college, Illinois Wesleyan University, Western Michigan University, Mary Hardin-Baylor College and Milwaukee School of Engineering.Â
SPECIAL HONORS: Eagle Scout; Sam Houston Area Council 1976 Distinguished Eagle Scout Award; Presidential Medal for Freedom, 1970; NASA Distinguished Service Medal; two Navy Distinguished Flying Crosses; 1967 FAI De Laval and Gold Space Medals (Athens, Greece); the American Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award; City of New York Gold Medal in 1969; City of Houston Medal for Valor in 1969; the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences special Trustees Award, 1969; the Institute of Navigation Award, 1969; the University of Wisconsin’s Distinguished Alumni Service Award, 1970; co-recipient of the American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Awards, 1966 and 1968; the Harmon International Trophy, 1966, 1967 and 1969; the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, 1969; the H. H. Arnold Trophy, 1969; General Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy, 1969; Robert J. Collier Trophy, 1968; Henry G. Bennett Distinguished Service Award; and the AIAA Haley Astronautics Award, 1970.
AFFILIATIONS: Trustee of the National Space Institute; Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; member Explorers Club; Fellow â€“ American Astronautical Society; Captain Lovell is on the Board of Directors of the Federal Signal Corporation; Astronautics Corporation of America; Astronaut Memorial Foundation; Captain Lovell is also on the Sports Medicine Advisory Board at Rush Presbyterian â€“ St. Lukes Medical Center. He is a regent emeritus for the Milwaukee School of Engineering; on the board of trustees of Lake Forest College; a trustee of the National Space Institute, the Association of Space Explorers; and the Chairman of the National Eagle Scouts Association.Â
EXPERIENCE: During his Naval career he has had numerous aviator assignments, including a 4-year tour asa test pilot at the
Naval Air Test Center,Patuxent River, Maryland.Â While there he served as Program Manager for the F4H â€œPhantomâ€ Fighter. A graduate of theAviation Safety School of theUniversity ofSouthern California, he also served as Safety Engineer with the Fighter Squadron 101 at the Naval Air Station,Oceana, Virginia.Â He has logged more than 7,000 hours flying time â€“ more than 3,500 hours in jet aircraft. NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Lovell was selected as an Astronaut by NASA in September 1962. He has since served as backup pilot for the Gemini 4 flight and backup Commander for the Gemini 9 flight, as well as backup Commander to Neil Armstrong for the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.Â
On December 4, 1965, he and Frank Borman were launched into space on the history-making Gemini 7 mission. The flight lasted 330 hours and 35 minutes and included the first rendezvous of two manned maneuverable spacecraft.Â The Gemini 12 mission, commanded by Lovell with Pilot Edwin Aldrin, began on November 11, 1966. This 4-day, 59-revolution flight brought the Gemini program to a successful close. Lovell served as Command Module Pilot and Navigator on the epic six-day journey of Apollo 8 â€“ man’s maiden voyage to the moon – December 21-27, 1968. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to be lifted into near-earth orbit by a 7-1/2 million pound thrust Saturn V launch vehicle; and Lovell and fellow crewmen, Frank Borman and William A. Anders, became the first humans to leave the Earth’s gravitational influence.Â He completed his fourth mission as Spacecraft Commander of the Apollo 13 flight, April 11-17, 1970, and became the first man to journey twice to the moon. Apollo 13 was programmed for ten days. However, the original flight plan was modified en route to the moon due to a failure of the Service Module cryogenic oxygen system. Lovell and fellow crewmen, John L. Swigert and Fred W. Haise, working closely with
Houston ground controllers, converted their lunar module “Aquarius” into an effective lifeboat. Their emergency activation and operation of lunar module systems conserved both electrical power and water in sufficient supply to assure their safety and survival while in space and for the return to earth.Â
Captain Lovell held the record for time in space with a total of 715 hours and 5 minutes until surpassed by the Skylab flights.Â On March 1, 1973, Captain Lovell retired from the Navy and from the Space Program to join Bay-Houston Towing Company in
Houston, Texas. Bay-Houston Towing company is a diversified company involved in harbor and coastwise towing, mining and marketing of peat products for the lawn and garden industry, and ranching. He was promoted to the position of President and Chief Executive Officer on March 1, 1975.Â
BUSINESS BACKGROUND: On January 1, 1977, Captain Lovell became President of Fisk Telephone Systems, Inc. in Houston, Texas (marketing business communications equipment) in the southwestern
United States. On January 1, 1981, he was appointed Group Vice President, Business Communications Systems, a Centel Corporation. He retired from Centel Corp as Executive Vice President and member of Board of Directors on January 1, 1991.Â
SPECIAL ASSIGNMENT: President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Captain Lovell as his consultant for Physical Fitness and Sports in June, 1967. When the Physical Fitness Council was revised under President Nixon in 1970, Captain Lovell was assigned the additional duty of Chairman of the Council. After eleven years of performing his dual role with the Council, he relinquished these positions in 1978. However, he is still a Consultant to the Council and is presently assisting the Council in achieving its objective of making all citizens aware of the importance of being physically fit. The office of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports is located in
DIRECTORSHIPS: Federal Signal Corporation, Chicago Astronautics Corp. of America,
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
NAME: Edgar Mitchell, (Captain, USN, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 14 Lunar Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born September 17, 1930, in Hereford, Texas, but considers
Artesia, New Mexico, his hometown. Married to the former Anita K. Rettig ofMedina, Ohio. Two daughters. He enjoys handball and swimming, and his hobbies are scuba diving and soaring.Â
EDUCATION: Attended primary schools in
Roswell, New Mexico, and is a graduate of Artesia High School in Artesia, New Mexico; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Management from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1952, a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1961, and a Doctorate of Science degree in Aeronautics/Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964; presented an Honorary Doctorate of Science from New Mexico State University in 1971, and an Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1971.Â
ORGANIZATIONS: Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; Sigma Xi; and Sigma Gamma Tau,
New York Academy of Sciences.Â
SPECIAL HONORS: Presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1970), the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the MSC Superior Achievement Award (1970), the Navy Astronaut Wings, the navy Distinguished Service medal, the City of
New York Gold Medal (1971), and the Arnold Air Societyâ€™s John F. Kennedy Award (1971).Â
EXPERIENCE: Captain Mitchellâ€™s experience includes Navy operational flight, test flight, engineering, engineering management, and experience as a college instructor. Mitchell came to the
Manned Spacecraft Center after graduating first in his class from the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School where he was both student and instructor.Â
He entered the Navy in 1952 and completed his basic training at the San Diego Recruit Depot. In May 1953, after completing instruction at the Officersâ€™
Candidate School atNewport, Rhode Island, he was commissioned as an Ensign. He completed flight training in July 1954 at Hutchinson, Kansas, and subsequently was assigned to Patrol Squadron 29 deployed toOkinawa. From 1957 to 1958, he flew A3 aircraft while assigned to Heavy Attack Squadron Two deployed aboard the USS BON HOMME RICHARD and USS TICONGEROGA; and he was a research project pilot with Air Development Squadron Five until 1959. His assignment from 1964 to 1965 was as Chief, Project Management Division of the Navy Field Office for Manned Orbiting Laboratory.Â He accumulated 4,000 hours flight time â€“1,900 hours in jets.Â
NASA EXPERIENCE: Captain Mitchell was in a group selected for astronaut training in April 1966. He served as a member of the astronaut support crew for Apollo 9 and as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 10.Â Â
He completed his first space flight as lunar module pilot on Apollo 14, January 31 – February 9, 1971. With him on manâ€™s third lunar landing mission were Alan B. Shepard, spacecraft commander, and Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot.Â
Maneuvering their lunar module, â€œAntares,â€ to a landing in the hilly upland Fra Mauro region of the moon, Shepard and Mitchell subsequently deployed and activated various scientific equipment and experiments and collected almost 100 pounds of lunar samples for return to Earth. Other Apollo 14 achievements include: first use of Mobile Equipment Transporter (MET); largest payload placed in lunar orbit; longest distance traversed on the lunar surface; largest payload returned from the lunar surface; longest lunar surface stay time (33 hours); longest lunar surface EVA (9 hours and 17 minutes); first use of shortened lunar orbit rendezvous techniques; first use of color TV with new vidicon tube on lunar surface; and first extensive orbital science period conducted during CSM solo operations.
In completing his first space flight, Mitchell logged a total of 216 hours and 42 minutes in space.Â He was subsequently designated to serve as backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 16.Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â NAME: Harrison Schmitt (Ph.D.), NASA Astronaut (former) Apollo 17 Lunar Module PilotÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born July 3, 1935, in
Santa Rita, New Mexico. Married to Teresa Fitzgibbon. Recreational interests writing, skiing, fishing, carpentry, hiking, handball, squash, and running.Â Â
EDUCATION: Graduated from
Western High School, Silver City, New Mexico; received a bachelor of science degree in science from the California Institute of Technology in 1957; studied at theUniversity ofOslo in Norway during 1957-1958; received doctorate in geology fromHarvard University in 1964.Â ORGANIZATIONS: The Geological Society of America (Honorary Fellow); The American Geophysical Union (Fellow); The American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow); The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Fellow); Sigma XI; American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Fellow); The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (Honorary Member); New Mexico Geological Society (Honorary Member); The American Astronautical Society.Â Â
SPECIAL HONORS: Fulbright Fellowship in Norway (1957-1958); Kennecott Fellowship in Geology at Harvard University (1958-1959); Harvard Fellowship (1959-1969); Parker Traveling Fellowship at Harvard University (1961-1962); National Science Postdoctoral Fellowship, Department of Geological Sciences, Harvard University, (1963-1964); Johnson Space Center Superior Achievement Award (1970); NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1973); Fairchild Fellow, Caltech (1973-1974); California Institute of Technology, Distinguished Graduate (1973); Honorary Fellow of the Geological Society of America (1973); Arthur S. Fleming Award (1973); Honorary Doctorate of Engineering from Colorado School of Mines (1973); Republic of Senegal’s National Order of the Lion (1973); Honorary Life Membership of New Mexico Geological Society (1973); Honorary Member of Norwegian Geographical Society (1973); Honorary Fellow American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (1973); Honorary Fellow of The Geological Society, London (1974); Honorary Doctorate Degree from Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (1975); Honorary Doctorate Degree from Franklin and Marshall College (1977); International Space Hall of Fame (1977); Fellow American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (1977); Engineer of the Year Award, National Society of Professional Engineers, Legislative Recognition Award (1981); National Security Award, highest Civil Defense Award (1981); Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Science from Salem College (1982); NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (1982); Lovelace Award, Society of NASA Flight Surgeons (1989); G. K. Gilbert Award, Planetary Geology Division, Geological Society of America (1989); Award for Excellence, Presbyterian Healthcare Foundation (1990).Â
EXPERIENCE: Schmitt was a teaching fellow at Harvard in 1961 where he assisted in teaching a course in ore deposits. Prior to his teaching assignment, he did geological work for the Norwegian Geological Survey on the west coast of Norway, and for the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico andMontana. He also worked for two summers as a geologist in southeasternAlaska.Â Â Before joining NASA, he was with the U.S. Geological Survey’sAstrogeology Center atFlagstaff, Arizona. He was project chief for lunar field geological methods and participated in photo and telescopic mapping of the Moon, and was among USGS astrogeologists instructing NASA astronauts during their geological field trips.
He has logged more than 2,100 hours flying time â€“ 1,600 hours in jet aircraft.Â Â Dr. Schmitt was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in June 1965. He later completed a 53-week course in flight training at Williams Air Force Base,
Arizona. In addition to training for future manned space flights. He was instrumental in providing Apollo flight crews with detailed instruction in lunar navigation, geology, and feature recognition. Schmitt also assisted in the integration of scientific activities into the Apollo lunar missions and participated in research activities requiring geologic, petrographic, and stratigraphic analyses of samples returned from the moon by Apollo missions.
He was backup lunar module pilot for Apollo 15.Â On his first journey into space, Dr. Schmitt occupied the lunar module pilot seat for Apollo 17 â€“ the last scheduled manned Apollo mission to the
United States â€“ which commenced at 11:33 p.m. (CST), December 6, 1972, and concluded on December 19, 1972. He was accompanied on the voyage of the command module â€œAmericaâ€ and the lunar module â€œChallengerâ€ by Gene Cernan (spacecraft commander) and Ronald Evans (command module pilot). In maneuvering â€œChallengerâ€ to a landing at Taurus-Littrow, which is located on the southeast edge of Mare Serenitatis, Schmitt and Cernan activated a base of operations facilitating their completion of three days of exploration. This last Apollo mission to the moon for the United States broke several records set by previous flights and include: longest manned lunar landing flight (301 hours, 51 minutes); longest lunar surface extravehicular activities (22 hours, 4 minutes); largest lunar sample return (an estimated 115 Kg, 249 lbs); and longest time in lunar orbit (147 hours, 48 minutes). Apollo 17 ended with a splashdown in thePacific Ocean approximately 0.4 mile from the target point and 4.3 miles from the prime recovery ship, USS TICONDEROGA.
Dr. Schmitt logged 301 hours and 51 minutes in space â€“ of which 22 hours and 4 minutes were spent in extravehicular activity on the lunar surface.
In July of 1973 Dr. Schmitt was appointed as one of the first Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholars at the California Institute of Technology. His appointment was extended to run through July 1975. This appointment ran concurrently with his other activities in NASA.
In February 1974, Schmitt assumed additional duties as Chief of Scientist-Astronauts.Â Â Dr. Schmitt was appointed NASA Assistant Administrator for Energy Programs in May 1974. This office has the responsibility for coordinating NASA support to other Federal Agencies conducting energy research and development and for managing NASA programs applying aeronautics and space technology to the generation, transmission, storage, conservation, utilization and management of energy for terrestrial applications.
In August of 1975, Dr. Schmitt resigned his post with NASA to run for the United States Senate in his home state of
New Mexico. He was elected on November 2, 1976, with 57% of the votes cast.
In January 1977, Schmitt began a six-year term as one of New Mexico’s Senators in
Washington, D.C. His major committee assignments were on the Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee; the Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee and the Select Committee on Ethics. He was the ranking Republican member of the Ethics Committee; of the Science, Technology and Space Subcommittee of Commerce, and the Consumer Sub-committee of Banking.
Since 1982, Schmitt has worked as a consultant, corporate director, and free lance writer and speaker on matters related to space, science, technology, and public policy. In 1994, he was appointed as an Adjunct Professor of Engineering at the
University ofWisconsin and Chairman and President of theAnnapolis Center for Environmental Quality.Â Â
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
NAME: Dave Scott (Colonel, USAF, Ret.), NASA Astronaut (former)Apollo 9 Command Module PilotApollo 15 CommanderÂ Â
PERSONAL DATA: Born June 6, 1932, in
San Antonio, Texas. Married. Two children. Recreational interests include swimming, handball, skiing, and photography.Â
EDUCATION: Graduated from Western High School, Washington, D.C.; received a Bachelor of Science degree from the
United States Military Academy and the degrees of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineer in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Science from theUniversity ofMichigan in 1971. He has graduated from theAir Force Experimental Test Pilots School andAerospace Research Pilots School. ORGANIZATIONS: Scott is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society, Associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, and Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi and Sigma Gamma Tau.Â SPECIAL HONORS: Two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, two Air Force Distinguished Service Medals, the Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Force Association’s David C. Schilling Trophy and the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1971.Â
EXPERIENCE: Scott graduated fifth in a class of 633 at
West Point and subsequently chose an Air Force career. He completed pilot training at Webb Air Force Base, Texas, in 1955 and then reported for gunnery training at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas, and Luke Air Force Base,Arizona.Â He was assigned to the 32d Tactical Fighter squadron at Soesterberg Air Base (RNAF), Netherlands, from April 1956 to July 1960. Upon completing this tour of duty, he returned to heUnited States for study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Â He retired from the Air Force in March 1975 with the rank of Colonel and over 5600 hours of flying time. NASA EXPERIENCE: Scott was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963.Â On March 16, 1966, he and command pilot Neil Armstrong were launched into space on the Gemini 8 mission â€“ a flight originally scheduled to last three days but terminated early due to a malfunctioning thruster. The crew performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space and demonstrated great piloting skill in overcoming the thruster problem and bringing the spacecraft to a safe landing.
Scott served as command module pilot for Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969. This was the third manned flight in the Apollo series, the second to be launched by a Saturn V, and the first to complete a comprehensive earth-orbital qualification and verification test of a “fully configured Apollo spacecraft.” The ten-day flight provided vital information previously not available on the operational performance, stability, and reliability of lunar module propulsion and life support systems. Highlight of this evaluation was completion of a critical lunar-orbit rendezvous simulation and subsequent docking, initiated by James McDivitt and Russell Schweickart from within the lunar module at a separation distance which exceeded 100 miles from the command/service module piloted by Scott. The crew also demonstrated and confirmed the operational feasibility of crew transfer and extravehicular activity techniques and equipment, with Schweickart completing a 46-minute EVA outside the lunar module. During this period, Dave Scott completed a 1-hour stand-up EVA in the open command module hatch photographing Schweickart’s activities and also retrieving thermal samples from the command module exterior. Apollo 9 splashed down less than four miles from the helicopter carrier USS GUADALCANAL.
In his next assignment, Scott was designated backup spacecraft commander for Apollo 12.Â He made his third space flight as spacecraft commander of Apollo 15, July 26 – August 7, 1971. His companions on the flight were Alfred M. Worden (command module pilot) and James B. Irwin (lunar module pilot). Apollo 15 was the fourth manned lunar landing mission and the first to visit and explore the moon’s Hadley Rille and
Apennine Mountains which are located on the southeast edge of the Mare Imbrium (Sea ofRains). The lunar module, “Falcon,” remained on the lunar surface for 66 hours and 54 minutes (setting a new record for lunar surface stay time) and Scott and Irwin logged 18 hours and 35 minutes each in extravehicular activities conducted during three separate excursions onto the lunar surface. Using “Rover-1” to transport themselves and their equipment along portions of Hadley Rille and theApennine Mountains, Scott and Irwin performed a selenological inspection and survey of the area and collected 180 pounds of lunar surface materials. They deployed an ALSEP package which involved the emplacement and activation of surface experiments, and their lunar surface activities were televised using a TV camera which was operated remotely by ground controllers stationed in the mission control center located atHouston, Texas. Other Apollo 15 achievements include: largest payloads ever placed into earth and lunar orbits; first scientific instrument module bay flown and operated on an Apollo spacecraft; longest distance traversed on lunar surface; first use of a lunar surface navigation device (mounted on Rover-1); first subsatellite launched in lunar orbit; and first extravehicular (EVA) from a command module during transearth coast. The latter feat performed by Worden during three excursions to “Endeavour’s” SIM-bay where he retrieved film cassettes from the panoramic and mapping cameras and reported his personal observations of the general condition of equipment housed there. Apollo 15 concluded with aPacific Ocean splashdown and subsequent recovery by the USS OKINAWA.He has logged 546 hours and 54 minutes in space, of which 20 hours and 46 minutes were in Extravehicular Activity. He is only one of three Astronauts who have flown both earth orbital and lunar Apollo Missions.Â
NAME: John Young, NASA Astronaut (Former)Apollo 10 Command Module PilotApollo 16 CommanderÂ
PERSONAL DATA: Born September 24, 1930, in
San Francisco, California. Married to the former Susy Feldman ofSt. Louis, Missouri. Two children, two grandchildren. Enjoys wind surfing, bicycling, reading, and gardening.Â
EDUCATION: Graduated from
Orlando High School,Orlando, Florida; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering with highest honors from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1952. ORGANIZATIONS: Fellow of the American Astronautical Society (AAS), the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).Â
SPECIAL HONORS: Awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor (1981), 4 NASA Distinguished Service Medals, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (1992), NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal (1987), NASA Outstanding Achievement Medal (1994), Navy Astronaut Wings (1965), 2 Navy Distinguished Service Medals, 3 Navy Distinguished Flying Crosses, the Georgia Tech Distinguished Young Alumni Award (1965), Distinguished Service Alumni Award (1972), the Exceptional Engineering Achievement Award (1985), the Academy of Distinguished Engineering Alumni (1994), and the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Award (1993), Distinguished Executive Award (1998), Rotary National Space Achievement Award (2000). Inducted into 6 Aviation and Astronaut Halls of Fame. Recipient of more than 80 other major awards, including 6 honorary doctorate degrees.
NAVY EXPERIENCE: Upon graduation from Georgia Tech, Young entered the United States Navy. After serving on the west coast destroyer USS LAWS (DD-558) in the Korean War, he was sent to flight training. He was then assigned to Fighter Squadron 103 for 4 years, flying Cougars and Crusaders.Â
After test pilot training at the U.S. Navy Test Pilot School in 1959, he was assigned to the
Naval Air Test Center for 3 years. His test projects included evaluations of the Crusader and Phantom fighter weapons systems. In 1962, he set world time-to-climb records to 3,000-meter and 25,000-meter altitudes in the Phantom. Prior to reporting to NASA, he was maintenance officer of Phantom Fighter Squadron 143. Young retired from the Navy as a Captain in September 1976, after completing 25 years of active military service. NASA EXPERIENCE: In September 1962, Young was selected as an astronaut. He is the first person to fly in space six times from earth, and seven times counting his lunar liftoff. The first flight was with Gus Grissom in Gemini 3, the first manned Gemini mission, on March 23, 1965. This was a complete end-to-end test of the Gemini spacecraft, during which Gus accomplished the first manual change of orbit altitude and plane and the first lifting reentry, and Young operated the first computer on a manned spacecraft. On Gemini 10, July 18-21, 1966, Young, as Commander, and Mike Collins, as Pilot, completed a dual rendezvous with two separate Agena target vehicles. While Young flew close formation on the second Agena, Mike Collins did an extravehicular transfer to retrieve a micro meteorite detector from that Agena. On his third flight, May 18-26, 1969, Young was Command Module Pilot of Apollo 10. Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan were also on this mission which orbited the Moon, completed a lunar rendezvous, and tracked proposed lunar landing sites. His fourth space flight, Apollo 16, April 16-27, 1972, was a lunar exploration mission, with Young as Spacecraft Commander, and Ken Mattingly and Charlie Duke. Young and Duke set up scientific equipment and explored the lunar highlands at Descartes. They collected 200 pounds of rocks and drove over 16 miles in the lunar rover on three separate geology traverses.Â
Youngâ€™s fifth flight was as Spacecraft Commander of STS-1, the first flight of the Space Shuttle, April 12-14, 1981, with Bob Crippen as Pilot. The 54-1/2 hour, 36-orbit mission verified Space Shuttle systems performance during launch, on orbit, and entry. Tests of the Orbiter Columbia included evaluation of mechanical systems including the payload bay doors, the attitude and maneuvering rocket thrusters, guidance and navigation systems, and Orbiter/crew compatibility. One hundred and thirty three of the missionâ€™s flight test objectives were accomplished. The Orbiter Columbia was the first manned spaceship tested during ascent, on orbit, and entry without benefit of previous unmanned missions.
Columbia was also the first winged reentry vehicle to return from space to a runway landing. It weighed about 98 tons as Young landed it on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California.Â
Youngâ€™s sixth flight was as Spacecraft Commander of STS-9, the first Spacelab mission, November 28-December 8, 1983, with Pilot Brewster Shaw, Mission Specialists Bob Parker and Owen Garriott, and Payload Specialists Byron Lichtenberg of the USA and Ulf Merbold of
West Germany. The mission successfully completed all 94 of its flight test objectives. For ten days the 6-man crew worked 12-hour shifts around-the-clock, performing more than 70 experiments in the fields of atmospheric physics, Earth observations, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics, materials processing and life sciences. The mission returned more scientific and technical data than all the previous Apollo and Skylab missions put together. The Spacelab was brought back for re-use, so that Columbia weighed over 110 tons as Young landed the spaceship at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Young was also on five backup space flight crews: backup pilot in Gemini 6, backup command module pilot for the second Apollo mission (before the Apollo Program fire) and Apollo 7, and backup spacecraft commander for Apollo 13 and 17. In preparation for prime and backup crew positions on eleven space flights, Young has put more than 15,000 hours into training so far, mostly in simulators and simulations.Â
He has logged more than 15,275 hours flying time in props, jets, helicopters, rocket jets, more than 9,200 hours in T-38s, and six space flights of 835 hours.
In January 1973, Young was made Chief of the Space Shuttle Branch of the Astronaut Office, providing operational and engineering astronaut support for the design and development of the Space Shuttle. In January 1974, he was selected to be Chief of the Astronaut Office, with responsibility for the coordination, scheduling, and control of activities of the astronauts. Young served as Chief of the Astronaut Office until May 1987. During his tenure, astronaut flight crews participated in the Apollo-Soyuz joint American-Russian docking mission, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Program, and 25 Space Shuttle missions. From May 1987 to February 1996, Young served as Special Assistant to the Director of JSC for Engineering, Operations, and Safety. In that position, he had direct access to the Center Director and other senior managers in defining and resolving issues affecting the continued safe operation of the Space Shuttle. Additionally, he assisted the Center Director in providing advice and counsel on engineering, operational, and safety matters related to the Space Station, Shuttle upgrades, and advanced human Space Exploration Programs, back to the Moon and on to Mars.Â
In February 1996 Young was assigned as Associate Director (Technical), responsible for technical, operational and safety oversight of all Agency Programs and activities assigned to the
Johnson Space Center. On December 31, 2004 Young retired from NASA. He will continue to advocate the development of the technologies that will allow us to live and work on the Moon and Mars. Those technologies over the long (or short) haul will save civilization on Earth.
ABOUT THE FILMMAKERSÂ
David Sington (director)David Sington taught himself how to make films (by actually doing it), first at
Cambridge University in England (his major was physics) and then while working as a radio producer for the BBC World Service. In 1987 he joined the Science and Features Department of BBC Television, where over the next 12 years he produced and directed 22 documentary films on a very wide range of subjects. In 1999 he left to form his own documentary production company, DOX Productions (www.tvdox.com). Since then DOX has made 17 films which have been shown on the BBC, Channel 4 in the UK, and PBS in the States, as well as by 30 other broadcasters in 22 countries. David has made a number of films about climate change, which have won him a Gold Hugo, two WildScreen awards and the 2007 Earthwatch film award, amongst others. His film â€œProject Poltergeistâ€ won a prestigious Grierson Award in 2004.Â IN THE SHADOW OF THE MOON is his first theatrical film since his days as an amateur filmmaker.Â
Duncan Copp (producer)
Duncan is a freelance producer/director and a regular associate of DOX Productions. He began filmmaking approximately 10 years ago after leaving academia. Duncan has worked on several award-winning science series including Earth Story (BBC and TLC) and Universe 2001 (Channel 4 and TLC). His credits at DOX include director of â€œMagnetic Flipâ€ and â€œGlobal Dimming,â€ both of which have won prestigious WildScreen awards.Â â€œMagnetic Flipâ€ was also a finalist in the 2004 Grierson Awards.Â Duncan is also a freelance science writer with over 70 publications to date, and has been an on-screen presenter for BBC, Discovery and National Geographic. Duncan holds a Master’s degree and a Doctorate fromLondon University in Earth Sciences.Â
(Additional crew bios pending)
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